Info Arabic Arrests of Zaghawa men and other ethnic Darfurians have also been reported in other areas of Khartoum, as well as Darfur and other parts of northern Sudan.
Introduction - The cultural and legal pluralism of Sudan As Africa's largest country, Sudan includes many religious, ethnic and socio-economic groups. Prevailing issues of access to resources, economic opportunity and power against the background of such diversity has unfortunately resulted in some of Africa's longest-running conflicts since the country became independent in These conflicts have included those between Muslim-Christian, Arab-African and nomad-farmer groups, e.
The rule of law is but one of many casualties resulting from the permanent presence of conflict or threat thereof in the South, West and Eastern regions.
The complexity of these factors renders it extremely difficult to distil a comprehensive overview of formal and informal Sudanese laws that are currently in operation. Rather, this article will attempt to present an elementary overview of principle Sudanese laws, as well as some contextual background as to the nature of the informal justice mechanisms that operate outside the formal legal mechanisms.
This article will provide a brief overview of Sudan's political history and current political landscape; the Judicial System, including courts system under common and customary law; the operation of customary laws, and finally Sudan's formal laws.
The Zaghawa or Beria alphabet, Beria Giray Erfe ('Zaghawa Writing Marks'), is an indigenous alphabetic script proposed for the Zaghawa language (also known as Beria) of Darfur and Chad. In the s, a Sudanese Zaghawa schoolteacher named Adam Tajir created an alphabet for the Zaghawa language, sometimes known as the camel . The Zaghawa language is a Saharan language spoken by the Zaghawa people of eastern central Chad (in the Sahel) and northwestern Sudan (Darfur). The people who speak this language call it Beria, from Beri, the endonym of the Zaghawa people, and "a," Zaghawa for 'mouth.'. This Pin was discovered by DK. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinterest.
A final section is included that lists important domestic legislation; as well as primary treaty law to which Sudan is a signatory. A list of useful electronically available resources is also provided, in particular, links to extensive reporting on human rights practices in Sudan.
Governance history and current political landscape Prior to independence inSudan was jointly administered by Anglo-Egyptian forces following their capture of Khartoum in The north and southern regions of Sudan were administered separately untilafter which political power was placed within the hands of a northern elite that was composed largely of Arab ethnicity.
Following independence, the North and South have been in almost constant conflict; the first civil war lasting from - and the second from to At present, "Sudan has an authoritarian government in which all effective political power lies in the hands of President Omar Hassan al Bashir and the National Congress NC Party inner circle, who have been in power since a military coup that was instigated and supported by the fundamentalist National Islamic Front NIF.
The origins of what developed into a national conflict between the North and South have been said to lie in Sudan's colonial past; however, economic and political disparities, the discovery of oil-rich areas in the South, as well as regional power politics have also fuelled the conflict.
Not surprisingly, the early mixture of British and Arab rule, combined with more recent assertions of Islamisation by political forces in Khartoum have had significant implications upon the composition of Sudanese laws.
Indeed, the religious composition of the warring groups has also influenced the nature of laws administered in areas controlled by the Muslim-dominated central government and the Christian rebel movement in the South.
Despite the death of SPLM leader and Vice-President elect John Garang in Augustthe peace process continued with the ratification of a new constitution in Octoberthe swearing-in of a new government that divided executive posts between the ruling parties of the North and South and the functioning of an autonomous Southern legislature and government.
Much of Sudan's laws will undergo amendment following the new Constitution, which seek to balance interests and power between the South Sudanese and Central Governments. The UN has deployed a multilateral peacekeeping observer mission to the South that is mandated to monitor the implementation of the agreement and support the building of national capacity until a referendum on the sovereignty of the south can be held in The issues in dispute included the designated commissions by agreement, Abyei borders, withdrawal of the government army beyond the Independence border of Januarythe volume and revenue of oil production, and the democratic transition, which had been extremely sluggish.
The central government responded by arming Arab "Janjaweed" militia, in addition to deploying the Sudanese army. Some estimate that Darfur conflict has displaced almost 2 million and taken anywhere from-lives. With much of the civilian population permanently displaced, the rule of law appears virtually non-existent.
Humanitarian agencies such as International Rescue Committee together with the United Nations Development Fund have undertaken efforts to build "Justice Confidence Centres" in displacement camps, which aim to create community spaces for resolving disputes as well as information on human rights and local laws.
To the East, a third conflict may escalate between the Government and the opposing "Eastern Front", who are in negotiations towards a peace agreement. The Islamist Ruling Party known as the NCP - National Congress Party is alleged to maintain dominance over the region by measures not unknown in Darfur - undercutting support for the opposition through patronage, divide-and-rule policies, and the creation of tribal militias.
Both situations bode poorly for rule of law and access to justice for local populations. The Judicial System Arbiters of disputes and administrators of formal and informal laws come in various forms throughout Sudan, depending on ethnic, religious and political factors.
Judicial courts are provided for under both statute and customary law while informal community practices also rely upon local chiefs, known as Sultans, to resolve disputes between community members.
Indeed, " t he judiciary relies greatly on popular justice for solving disputes through methods of conciliation and the application of tradition.
Given Sudan's ethnic and religious plurality, customary laws and practice are diverse, differing from tribe-to-tribe and community-to-community. Case reporting of decisions by the formal courts is published in the Sudan Law Journal and Reports, whilst laws are published in the Sudan Gazette.
Sherif, Northern "judiciary structures are more developed but the independence of the judiciary seems to have been compromised - as evidenced by the arbitrary dismissal of qualified judges, attorneys-general and law officers. Existing legislation fails to guarantee the full spectrum of human rights and fundamental freedoms, while military decrees and emergency laws undermine those rights currently protected by statutory law.
Outside of Khartoum, the Association is viewed as being overly urban in both composition and its substantive focus and therefore removed from the daily needs and challenges outside of the capital.
However, it is unfair to characterize an entire bar; indeed, the Association has endured its own difficulties even within Khartoum. In"the government amended the Advocate Act of in such a drastic way as to totally abrogate the Association's independence.
For the first time in its history, the SBA has been reduced to another trades union. Department of State, members of the legal profession are harassed by the Government viewed as political opponents; some have been detained, including the Director of the Darfur Lawyers Association, Mohamed Adomo, who was later released.
Decisions are reached by a majority of opinion and are subject to revision only if and when the chief justice deems that an infringement of shari'a laws has taken place.This Pin was discovered by DK. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinterest. An alphabet for Zaghawa was developed in the s by Adam Tajir, a school teacher.
He based it on the brands used on camels and other livestock by the Zaghawa people. This alphabet was improved in by a vet called Siddick Adam Issa, who called the new version Beria Giray Erfe ('Beria Writing Marks' or 'Beria Branding Script').
Zaghawa alphabet topic. The Zaghawa or Beria alphabet, Beria Giray Erfe ('Zaghawa Writing Marks'), is an indigenous alphabetic script proposed for the Zaghawa also known as . Jennifer's Language Pages - Greetings in more than languages To find a specific language, click on the first letter of the language's name and then choose the language .
English. On 2 April, a 55 year old Zaghawa merchant, detained incommunicado by NISS agents in Geneina for 50 days was released after signing a statement that he would not support JEM and its leader, that NISS officers would be deployed to his home and shop to monitor his activities.
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