For my final project, I composed an anthology intended to serve as a relevant and useable document for educators of English Language Learners ELLs.
A tetrahedral model of person, task, context, and strategies is first proposed to foreground the review. Next, empirical research along task, person, and contextual dimensions is reviewed. Specifically, the review focuses on task-dependent guessing strategies, dictionary strategies, note-taking strategies, rote rehearsal strategies, and encoding strategies.
Instead of searching for the best strategies that produce the best results, the author argues that the choice, use, and effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies depend on the task, the learner, and the learning context.
The paper ends by calling for a diversification of effort in both top-down theory building that provides clearer guidance to future research and more bottom-up empirical research that goes beyond the presentation and retention of words.
Introduction Psychologists, linguists, and language teachers have been interested in vocabulary learning strategies for a long time Levenston, Numerous studies have been conducted comparing the retention effects of different vocabulary presentation strategies.
In fact, the vocabulary field has been especially productive in the last two decades. We have seen a number of classic volumes on theories e. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary acquisition and to pinpoint areas that need further exploration.
To this end, the article focuses on one area, i. It is argued that despite the impressive amount of recent research on vocabulary acquisition, a person-task-context-strategy perspective that is presented here is needed in order to anchor existing research in a larger framework and to point to areas for future efforts.
This problem-solving process is constrained by the learning context where the problem is being tackled. Language learning in general and vocabulary acquisition in particular are such problem-solving tasks at different levels of complexity. Theorists and researchers have presented the same framework in slightly different ways.
Williams and Burden's social constructivist model outlines four aspects of the teaching-learning process, i. Cohen focuses on learners and discusses the intersection of learning style preferences, learner strategies, and language tasks.
Flavell's conception of the three components of metacognitive knowledge, i. Brown, Bransford, Ferrara, and Campione include learning activities, characteristics of the learner, criterial tasks, and nature of the materials as the four aspects of their framework for exploring problems of learning.
The person-task-context-strategy model outlined here can be viewed as a synthesis of this body of knowledge, specifically for the purpose of analyzing research work on language learning strategies. The learner brings to the language learning situation a wide spectrum of individual differences that will influence the learning rate and the ultimate learning result.
These person-dependent factors are relatively stable, and determine to a large extent how a learner approaches a task. A learning task is the end product in the learner's mind.
It can be as broad as mastering a second language or as specific as remembering one meaning of a word.(1) Enhancing English skills, particularly reading, writing, listening, and speaking: Bagheri and Fazel () found that translation assists students in acquiring writing, facilitates their comprehension, helps them develop and express ideas in another language, and increases their motivation to learn English.
Students also tend to make more gains in learning vocabulary, phrases, idioms, and. learners use, the greater learners’ language learning success will be.
On the basis of the idea above, as teachers, it is crucial to be aware of the basics of vocabulary learning strategies and how students adopt the strategies. Keywords: integrated reading and writing, English language learners, middle school students, perceived needs, teacher challenges English classes and English tests at all levels in Korea have focused on reading comprehension.
Teaching and Developing Vocabulary: Key to Long-Term Reading Success simple content and common vocabulary. While most students who succeed in reading in the early grades continue to achieve well, some do not. eficial is to increase their language and vocabulary skills. Indeed there is research to support this posi-tion (Elley, Participants have been divided into two groups: (1) learners with low English proficiency level and (2) learners with high English proficiency level to measure the significance between them in learning vocabulary, language learners spend an estimated hundreds of hours each week studying.
The Relationship between English Language Proficiency and EFL Learners’ Use of Translation Strategies. playing an important role in EFL learning, ranging from vocabulary, reading to writing. EFL learners use writing in English, whereas low achievers showed more reliance on native language in EFL writing.