The American Renaissance in Context What was happening in society and culture that might have spurred the explosion of literary expression seen during the antebellum period of American history? As you most likely know, the term "antebellum" refers to the period before the Civil War and is generally considered to span the years between In this unit, we will situate the American Renaissance in its socio-historical context. We will first examine how the American Renaissance was influenced by European Romanticism and ultimately gave rise to the specifically American voices of authors like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Sojourner Truth, and William Apess, who all investigated what it meant to exist as a human being during this time.
McGree Leading Change from the Classroom: Teachers As Leaders As the movement to restructure schools continues, teachers are increasingly being called upon to provide leadership in schools.
The notion of teacher leadership is not new, but recently it has been transformed.
In the past, teacher leadership roles have been limited in scope and established at the prerogative of school administrators. Teachers have long served as team leaders, department chairs, association leaders and curriculum developers.
In these roles teachers have often served as "representatives" rather than "leaders" who enact change Livingston, In addition, leadership roles for teachers have traditionally lacked flexibility and required a lengthy, ongoing commitment of time and energy.
Often the decision to take on leadership tasks has been accompanied by a decision to get out of teaching and into administration. Recently, reports on the status of teacher education have issued strong and compelling pleas for dramatically different roles for teachers and increased professional development Carnegie, ; Holmes While recognizing the centrality of teaching, the reports emphasize the need for teachers to extend their sphere of influence beyond the classroom and into schoolwide leadership activities.
Advocacy for teacher professionalism and expanded leadership roles is based on the understanding that teachers, because they have daily contacts with learners, are in the best position to make critical decisions about curriculum and instruction.
Moreover, they are better able to implement changes in a comprehensive and continuous manner Howey, ; Livingston, The movement to expand teacher roles is also motivated by an ongoing need to attract and retain qualified teachers.
What is Teacher Leadership? Similarly, the leadership considerations of teachers are grounded in their desire to improve the quality of teaching and learning for all students. Studies have shown that teachers do not subscribe to traditional definitions of leadership as "higher" or "superior" positions within the organizational hierarchy Devaney, Today, leadership roles have begun to emerge and promise real opportunities for teachers to impact educational change-without necessarily leaving the classroom.
Teachers are now serving as research colleagues, working as advisor-mentors to new teachers, and facilitating professional development activities as master teachers. Teachers also act as members of school-based leadership teams, instructional support teams and leaders of change efforts Livingston, What We Know About the Work Lives of Teacher Leaders In spite of the fact that roles continue to expand, little is known about the teachers who take on leadership roles and their experiences.
Researchers are only beginning to understand the complexities involved in creating and implementing leadership positions for teachers. Several recent studies have attempted to document the lives of teachers as they confront the challenges of leadership.
These have shown that while lead teachers typically find their new roles and responsibilities enormously rewarding, they also encounter a variety of constraints and tensions.
What Do Teacher Leaders Do? In one of the most extensive studies on the work of teacher leaders, Lieberman, Saxl, and Miles focused on what teachers actually did when they assumed leadership positions designed to provide assistance to other teachers.
The authors found that the work of lead teachers was varied and largely specific to the individual context of the school. In order to be effective with their colleagues, lead teachers found it necessary to learn a variety of leadership skills while on the job.
Building trust and developing rapport Diagnosing organizational conditions Managing the work Building skills and confidence in others The authors concluded that restructuring school communities to incorporate leadership positions for teachers will require teacher leaders to take certain actions.
Studies have shown that leadership positions can yield significant personal benefits to those involved. Intellectual and professional growth and decreased isolation are personal gains teachers reported in their new leadership roles.
Intellectual and professional growth. Teachers report that their knowledge and skills in teaching increased dramatically as a result of their involvement in leadership positions Porter, ; Lieberman et al.
New skills and knowledge also lead to increased confidence among lead teachers and a stronger commitment to teaching.
Professional growth was more often the result of collaboration with peers than activities separated from the normal school routine. Growth occurred as lead teachers observed and assisted other teachers, worked with administrators, and were exposed to new concepts and ideas.
Teacher leaders report a significant decrease in isolation as a result of opportunities to work with others outside of the classroom. Studies have found, however, that in most instances isolation only decreased for those involved in leadership positions and had little bearing on the isolation felt by the larger teaching force Porter, ; Wasley, One-on-one writing assistance from a professional writer Advanced pro-editing service - have your paper proofed and edited The tools you need to write a quality essay or term paper.
How-to Guide: Reducing Patient Injuries from Falls Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 4 Introduction Launched in , Transforming Care at the Bedside (TCAB) was a national program of. transforming society by optimizing movement to improve the human experience.
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This movement creates a huge ripple, causing everything from shifting land-use patterns, loss of culture and diversity, environmental degradation, a less happy society, and traffic build-up in urban areas. Contact ; Contact Find Us. The Movement Science Center has two clinics located conveniently in the heart of Metairie and Covington, Louisiana.
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