She is currently ranked the th best fencer in the country. Alpha — an ambiguously-AI-automated alliterative account about abiogenesis. Sarah C is interested in a potential sepsis cure and pleads for you to consider helping a hospital fund a study. Outside my area of expertise, except to say that sepsis is really bad and curing it would be pretty great, plus I trust Sarah.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear.
Linguists generally agree that it came to the English language from Middle Frenchbut there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages, generally. By the end of World War IIracism had acquired the same supremacist connotations formerly associated with racialism: The term "race hatred" had also been used by sociologist Frederick Hertz in the late s.
As its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is relatively recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazismwhich saw "race" as a naturally given political unit.
Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not easily fall under a single definition and they also argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas.
First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups; second, a set of ideas an ideology about racial differences; and, third, discriminatory actions practices. The UDHR recognizes that if people are to be treated with dignity, they require economic rightssocial rights including educationand the rights to cultural and political participation and civil liberty.
It further states that everyone is entitled to these rights "without distinction of any kind, such as race, coloursexlanguagereligionpolitical or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
According to the UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination the term "racial discrimination" shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, colour, descentor national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.
They are born equal in dignity and rights and all form an integral part of humanity. Sociology of race and ethnic relations Sociologistsin general, recognize "race" as a social construct.
This means that, although the concepts of race and racism are based on observable biological characteristics, any conclusions drawn about race on the basis of those observations are heavily influenced by cultural ideologies.
Racism, as an ideology, exists in a society at both the individual and institutional level. While much of the research and work on racism during the last half-century or so has concentrated on "white racism" in the Western world, historical accounts of race-based social practices can be found across the globe.
In studies of these majority white societies, the aggregate of material and cultural advantages is usually termed " white privilege ". Race and race relations are prominent areas of study in sociology and economics.
Much of the sociological literature focuses on white racism.
Some of the earliest sociological works on racism were penned by sociologist W. Du Bois wrote, "The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.
The "newer" more hidden and less easily detectable forms of racism—which can be considered embedded in social processes and structures—are more difficult to explore as well as challenge.
It has been suggested that, while in many countries overt or explicit racism has become increasingly tabooeven among those who display egalitarian explicit attitudes, an implicit or aversive racism is still maintained subconsciously. Implicit attitudes are evaluations that occur without conscious awareness towards an attitude object or the self.
These evaluations are generally either favorable or unfavorable.
They come about from various influences in the individual experience. In thinking about crime, for example, social psychologist Jennifer L. Thus, racist thoughts and actions can arise from stereotypes and fears of which we are not aware.
Discourse analysis seeks to reveal the meaning of race and the actions of racists through careful study of the ways in which these factors of human society are described and discussed in various written and oral works.
Van Dijkfor example, examines the different ways in which descriptions of racism and racist actions are depicted by the perpetrators of such actions as well as by their victims.
These books, and others like them, feed into what has been called the " white savior narrative in film ", in which the heroes and heroines are white even though the story is about things that happen to black characters. African American writers have sometimes been portrayed in African-American studies as retreating from racial issues when they write about " whiteness ", while others identify this as an African American literary tradition called "the literature of white estrangement", part of a multipronged effort to challenge and dismantle white supremacy in the US.
A Genealogy posits modern racism similarly, focusing on the notion of a dominant group, usually whites, vying for racial purity and progress, rather than an overt or obvious ideology focused on the oppression of nonwhites. Often, the two are listed together as "racial and ethnic" in describing some action or outcome that is associated with prejudice within a majority or dominant group in society.
Furthermore, the meaning of the term racism is often conflated with the terms prejudice, bigotryand discrimination. Racism is a complex concept that can involve each of those, but it cannot be equated with nor is it synonymous with these other terms.
The term is often used in relation to what is seen as prejudice within a minority or subjugated group, as in the concept of reverse racism. Such aspects are described in this section, although the list is not exhaustive.
Aversive racism Main article: The term was coined by Joel Kovel to describe the subtle racial behaviors of any ethnic or racial group who rationalize their aversion to a particular group by appeal to rules or stereotypes.The history of Western ethics Ancient civilizations to the end of the 19th century The ancient Middle East and Asia.
The first ethical precepts must have been passed down by word of mouth from parents and elders, but as societies learned to use the written word, they began to set down their ethical beliefs.
These records constitute the first historical . Jan 14, · This emphasis on freedom and equality has led some of my students to conclude that Kant would have been in favor of affirmative action because, they reasoned, it was the denial of freedom and equality to African Americans that produced the injustices affirmative action .
Indeed, the picture drawn by Richard Sander in a lengthy review of affirmative action in law schools, published in the November Stanford Law Review, lends credence to the Thernstrom’s academic mismatch thesis. Ranking law schools from best to worst, Sander found that affirmative action boosts African-American students 20 or more steps up the ladder, putting them in schools with white .
The Tax Protester FAQ Introduction What is the purpose of this FAQ? The purpose of this FAQ is to provide concise, authoritative rebuttals to nonsense about the U.S. tax system that is frequently posted on web sites scattered throughout the Internet, by a variety of fanatics, idiots, charlatans, and dupes, frequently referred to by the courts as “tax .
Although the techniques that we now call "affirmative action" are of fairly recent design, the conceptual recognition of the need to take affirmative, or positive legal action to redress discrimination's impact, rather than simply ending discrimination, has been around since the Civil War.
NOTE: The terms “left” and “right” define opposite ends of the political spectrum. In the United States, liberals are referred to as the left or left-wing and conservatives are referred to as the right or right-wing.