The concept of a decentralized network was first introduced by researcher Paul Baran inregarding how telephone communications could be improved. This way, if one part of the network was damaged, the undamaged sections would continue working properly.
A proper chain of command ensures that every task, job position and department has one person assuming responsibility for performance. Command Chain Formation The command chain doesn't happen accidentally.
Organizational designers lay it out as the last step in creating an organizational structure. Designers next determine the tasks needed to reach the goals. Departmentalization follows as designers decide how to group the tasks.
Grouping affects resource sharing and the ease with which people communicate and coordinate work. After departmentalizing, designers assign authority for tasks and areas. Once authority is assigned, planners can finally lay out the relationships between positions, thereby creating a chain of command.
Starting at the bottom, each position is connected to one above it by a line. Following the line vertically from position to position reveals the chain of command. Each person is one link in the chain. Span of Control A manager may be linked to many or few subordinates.
Consequently, employees under such managers have more authority to perform their jobs and even make decisions than do employees reporting to managers with narrow spans of control.
Flat Organizations When a manager has a wide span of control, the organizational chart takes on a horizontal, flattened appearance.
Fewer managers are needed in middle management, so the company has less of a power hierarchy. These are characteristics found in organic organizational structures. The chain may only consist of employees and the owner or employees to a manager to the CEO, making for a very short chain of command.
Lacking bureaucracy, flat organizations can readily mobilize to meet market conditions. Vertical Organizations Managers closely supervising subordinates can only manage a few. These managers have narrow spans of control. Narrow spans require more managers to make sure all employees are properly supervised.
These managers must also be managed closely, given their involvement in details and decision-making. This results in tall organizations with several layers of middle management. The chain of command is important and is used to exert control from the top. Many rules govern activities.
Such structures are rigid and mechanistic, leaving little room for innovation and creativity.An amount that has to be paid or given up in order to get something..
In business, cost is usually a monetary valuation of (1) effort, (2) material, (3) resources, (4) time and utilities consumed, (5) risks incurred, and (6) opportunity forgone in production and delivery of a good or service. All expenses are costs, but not all costs (such as those incurred in acquisition of an income.
Organizational Power in Perspective AMARJIT SINGH,heartoftexashop.com, heartoftexashop.com ABSTRACT: Power and inﬂuence are fundamental human phenomena that are deeply ingrained on the psyche and conscious personality of individuals.
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It will increase your confidence, . Types. There are a variety of legal types of organisations, including corporations, governments, non-governmental organisations, political organisations, international organisations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and educational institutions..
A hybrid organisation is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector.
Jun 26, · In an organizational structure, “chain of command” refers to a company's hierarchy of reporting relationships -- from the bottom to the top of an organization, who must answer to whom.
The. Layers and Span of Control. In contrast to a tall organisation, a flat organisation will have relatively few layers or just one layer of heartoftexashop.com means that the "Chain of Command" from top to bottom is short and the "span of control is wide".