Stamm This essay compares American and Asian education and illustrates how quantity is chosen over quality in the U. After demonstrating that Japanese teacher-conducted classroom research lesson study has resulted in more practical, higher quality curriculum, textbooks, and teachers manuals, it address the objections to the use of those materials in the United States to improve teacher training and student achievement.
With numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, it was necessary to verify which sources were more reliable. In order to evaluate these sources, various methodologies were developed, such as the " science of biography ", " science of hadith " and " Isnad " chain of transmission.
These methodologies were later applied to other historical figures in the Islamic civilization. Famous historians in this tradition include Urwah d. During the Age of Enlightenmentthe modern development of historiography through the application of scrupulous methods began.
Among the many Italians who contributed to this were Leonardo Bruni c. Voltaire[ edit ] French philosophe Voltaire — had an enormous influence on the development of historiography during the Age of Enlightenment through his demonstration of fresh new ways to look at the past.
Guillaume de Syon argues: Voltaire recast historiography in both factual and analytical terms.
Not only did he reject traditional biographies and accounts that claim the work of supernatural forces, but he went so far as to suggest that earlier historiography was rife with falsified evidence and required new investigations at the source.
Such an outlook was not unique in that the scientific spirit that 18th-century intellectuals perceived themselves as invested with. A rationalistic approach was key to rewriting history. He broke from the tradition of narrating diplomatic and military events, and emphasized customs, social history and achievements in the arts and sciences.
He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the world, eliminating theological frameworks, and emphasizing economics, culture and political history. Although he repeatedly warned against political bias on the part of the historian, he did not miss many opportunities to expose the intolerance and frauds of the church over the ages.
Voltaire advised scholars that anything contradicting the normal course of nature was not to be believed. Although he found evil in the historical record, he fervently believed reason and educating the illiterate masses would lead to progress.
He helped free historiography from antiquarianism, Eurocentrismreligious intolerance and a concentration on great men, diplomacy, and warfare.
In he published the History of Englanda 6-volume work which extended "From the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in ". Hume adopted a similar scope to Voltaire in his history; as well as the history of Kings, Parliaments, and armies, he examined the history of culture, including literature and science, as well.
Because of its relative objectivity and heavy use of primary sourcesits methodology became a model for later historians. This has led to Gibbon being called the first "modern historian". Biographer Leslie Stephen wrote that thereafter, "His fame was as rapid as it has been lasting.
Winston Churchill memorably noted, "I set out upon I rode triumphantly through it from end to end and enjoyed it all. It is the one English history which may be regarded as definitive Whatever its shortcomings the book is artistically imposing as well as historically unimpeachable as a vast panorama of a great period.
The tumultuous events surrounding the French Revolution inspired much of the historiography and analysis of the early 19th century. A Historyin Carlyle rewrote it from scratch. He considered the dynamic forces of history as being the hopes and aspirations of people that took the form of ideas, and were often ossified into ideologies.
Carlyle presented the history as dramatic events unfolding in the present as though he and the reader were participants on the streets of Paris at the famous events. It is rarely read or cited in the last century.
Michelet and Taine[ edit ] Jules Michelet —later in his career.Atomism, any doctrine that explains complex phenomena in terms of aggregates of fixed particles or units.
This philosophy has found its most successful application in natural science: according to the atomistic view, the material universe is composed of minute particles, which are considered to be relatively simple and immutable and too small to be visible.
The purpose of this page is to provide resources in the rapidly growing area of computer-based statistical data analysis. This site provides a web-enhanced course on various topics in statistical data analysis, including SPSS and SAS program listings and introductory routines.
Topics include questionnaire design and survey sampling, forecasting techniques, computational tools and demonstrations. Two basic aspects of dynamic analysis differ from static analysis.
First, dynamic loads are applied as a function of time or frequency-. Second, this time or frequency-varying load application induces time or frequency-varying response (displacements, velocities, accelerations, forces, and stresses).
The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. balancing quantity and quality Evaluating individual scientific performance is an essential component of research assessment, and outcomes of such evaluations can play a key role in institutional research strategies, including funding schemes, hiring, firing, and promotions.
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