The "dark triad" of three personality traits: Sometimes called "dark personality. Psychopathy is a psychological condition in which the individual shows a profound lack of empathy for the feelings of others, a willingness to engage in immoral and antisocial behavior for short-term gains, and extreme egocentricity. Psychopaths do not have the fear response experienced by most of us to the potential negative consequences of criminal or risky behavior and are relatively insensitive to punishment.
Certain groups of symptoms usually occur together. These groups are sometimes viewed as dimensions or clusters that may reflect an underlying process. These symptoms fit into three to five groupings.
The observed groups included a "symmetry factor", a "forbidden thoughts factor", a "cleaning factor", and a "hoarding factor". The "symmetry factor" correlated highly with obsessions related to ordering, counting, and symmetry, as well as repeating compulsions.
The "forbidden thoughts factor" correlated highly with intrusive and distressing thoughts of a violent, religious, or sexual nature. The "cleaning factor" correlated highly with obsessions about contamination and compulsions related to cleaning. The "hoarding factor" only involved hoarding related obsessions and compulsions, and was identified as being distinct from other symptom groupings.
Furthermore, some subtypes have been associated with improvement in performance on certain tasks such as pattern recognition washing subtype and spatial working memory obsessive thought subtype. Subgroups have also been distinguished by neuroimaging findings and treatment response.
Neuroimaging studies on this have been too few, and the subtypes examined have differed too much to draw any conclusions.
On the other hand, subtype dependent treatment response has been studied, and the hoarding subtype has consistently responded least to treatment. Primarily obsessional obsessive compulsive disorder People with OCD may face intrusive thoughts, such as thoughts about the Devil shown is a painted interpretation of Hell Obsessions are thoughts that recur and persist, despite efforts to ignore or confront them.
Within and among individuals, the initial obsessions, or intrusive thoughts, vary in their clarity and vividness. A relatively vague obsession could involve a general sense of disarray or tension accompanied by a belief that life cannot proceed as normal while the imbalance remains. A more intense obsession could be a preoccupation with the thought or image of someone close to them dying   or intrusions related to " relationship rightness ".
Other individuals with OCD may experience the sensation of invisible protrusions emanating from their bodies, or have the feeling that inanimate objects are ensouled. For example, obsessive fears about sexual orientation can appear to the person with OCD, and even to those around them, as a crisis of sexual identity.
For example, an individual who engages in compulsive hoarding might be inclined to treat inorganic matter as if it had the sentience or rights of living organisms, while accepting that such behavior is irrational on a more intellectual level.
There is a debate as to whether or not hoarding should be considered with other OCD symptoms. OCD without overt compulsions could, by one estimate, characterize as many as 50 percent to 60 percent of OCD cases. The person might feel that these actions somehow either will prevent a dreaded event from occurring or will push the event from their thoughts.
In any case, the individual's reasoning is so idiosyncratic or distorted that it results in significant distress for the individual with OCD or for those around them.
Excessive skin pickinghair-pullingnail bitingand other body-focused repetitive behavior disorders are all on the obsessive—compulsive spectrum. Some people use compulsions to avoid situations that may trigger their obsessions. Although some people do certain things over and over again, they do not necessarily perform these actions compulsively.
For example, bedtime routines, learning a new skill, and religious practices are not compulsions. Whether or not behaviors are compulsions or mere habit depends on the context in which the behaviors are performed. For example, arranging and ordering DVDs for eight hours a day would be expected of one who works in a video store, but would seem abnormal in other situations.
In other words, habits tend to bring efficiency to one's life, while compulsions tend to disrupt it. In such situations, it can be hard for the person to fulfil their work, family, or social roles.
In some cases, these behaviors can also cause adverse physical symptoms. For example, people who obsessively wash their hands with antibacterial soap and hot water can make their skin red and raw with dermatitis.
For example, a person compulsively checking the front door may argue that the time taken and stress caused by one more check of the front door is much less than the time and stress associated with being robbed, and thus checking is the better option.
In practice, after that check, the person is still not sure and deems it is still better to perform one more check, and this reasoning can continue as long as necessary.
Good or fair insight is characterized by the acknowledgment that obsessive-compulsive beliefs are or may not be true. Poor insight is characterized by the belief that obsessive-complsive beliefs are probably true.
In such cases, the person with OCD will truly be uncertain whether the fears that cause them to perform their compulsions are irrational or not. After some discussion, it is possible to convince the individual that their fears may be unfounded. It may be more difficult to do ERP therapy on such people because they may be unwilling to cooperate, at least initially.ABSTRACT.
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, in which subtypes have been proposed. Previous studies suggested that gender plays a relevant role in OCD phenotypic expression.
This study aimed to review the literature on gender differences in clinical, genetic or familial aspects of OCD. Identifying effects from shared samples. We examined articles that shared an author to determine whether effects were based on the same sample.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions"). People are unable to control either the thoughts or the activities for more than a short period of time.
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analyzed Clifton delayed an analysis of the article the author studied on the treatment for obsessive his juggling an analysis of the city of altoona and the .
Background Patients with chronic forms of major depression are difficult to treat, and the relative efficacy of medications and psychotherapy is uncertain.
Methods We randomly assigned adults. Mid-treatment analysis. Techniques like contingency management may also increase motivation for treatment and may be studied in the future as a way to increase engagement. M. Iniesta-Sepúlveda, J. Olivares-Rodríguez, J.L. Parada-NavasPsychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.