For utilitarianism and Hegelianism, and their combination in various forms of liberal thought, the… This article discusses the political foundations and history of liberalism from the 17th century to the present. For coverage of classical and contemporary philosophical liberalism, see political philosophy.
The real and effectual discipline which is exercised over a workman is that of his customers. It is the fear of losing their employment which restrains his frauds and corrects his negligence. Chapter X, Part II.
People of the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices.
It is impossible indeed to prevent such meetings, by any law which either could be executed, or would be consistent with liberty or justice. But though the law cannot hinder people of the same trade from sometimes assembling together, it ought to do nothing to facilitate such assemblies; much less to render them necessary.
Chapter X, Part II, p. In Englandand in all Roman Catholic countries, the lottery of the church is in reality much more advantageous than is necessary.
Whenever the legislature attempts to regulate the differences between masters and their workmen, its counsellors are always the masters. When the regulation, therefore, is in favor of the workmen, it is always just and equitable; but it is sometimes otherwise when in favor of the masters.
Chapter x, Part II, p. Good roads, canals, and navigable rivers, by diminishing the expence of carriage, put the remote parts of the country more nearly upon a level with those of the neighbourhood of the town.
They are upon that the greatest of all improvements. Chapter XI, Part I, p. With the greater part of rich people, the chief enjoyment of riches consists in the parade of riches, which in their eye is never so complete as when they appear to possess those decisive marks of opulence which nobody can possess but themselves.
China is a much richer country than any part of Europe. Corn is a necessary, silver is only a superfluity. The retinue of a grandee in China or Indostan accordingly is, by all accounts, much more numerous and splendid than that of the richest subjects of Europe.
It is the natural effect of improvement, however, to diminish gradually the real price of almost all manufactures. The interest of the dealers, however, in any particular branch of trade or manufactures, is always in some respects different from, and even opposite to, that of the public.
To widen the market and to narrow the competition, is always the interest of the dealers.
The proposal of any new law or regulation of commerce which comes from this order, ought always to be listened to with great precaution, and ought never to be adopted till after having been long and carefully examined, not only with the most scrupulous, but with the most suspicious attention.
It comes from an order of men, whose interest is never exactly the same with that of the public, who have generally an interest to deceive and even to oppress the public, and who accordingly have, upon many occasions, both deceived and oppressed it.
Book II[ edit ] His capital is continually going from him in one shape, and returning to him in another, and it is only by means of such circulation, or successive exchanges, that it can yield him any profit. Such capitals, therefore, may very properly be called circulating capitals. No fixed capital can yield any revenue but by means of a circulating capital.
A man must be perfectly crazy who, where there is tolerable security, does not employ all the stock which he commands, Thus the labour of a manufacture adds, generally, to the value of the materials which he works upon, that of his own maintenance, and of his masters profits.
The labour of a menial servant, on the contrary, adds to the value of nothing. The annual produce of the land and labour of any nation can be increased in its value by no other means, but by increasing either the number of its productive labourers, or the productive powers of those labourers who had before been employed.
Though the profusion of Government must undoubtedly have retarded the natural progress of England to wealth and improvement, it has not been able to stop it.
It is the highest impertinence and presumption, therefore, in kings and ministers, to pretend to watch over the economy of private people, and to restrain their expence, either by sumptuary laws, or by prohibiting the importation of foreign luxuries.
They are themselves always, and without any exception, the greatest spendthrifts in the society. Let them look well after their own expence, and they may safely trust private people with theirs. If their own extravagance does not ruin the state, that of their subjects never will.John Rawls (—) John Rawls was arguably the most important political philosopher of the twentieth century.
He wrote a series of highly influential articles in the s and ’60s that helped refocus Anglo-American moral and political philosophy on substantive problems about what we ought to do. Also see EB and C.
George Boeree.. Smart, John Jamieson Carswell (). English-Australian philosopher. Influenced by the methods of Ryle, Smart defends a strictly physicalist philosophy of mind in Philosophy and Scientific Realism (). Smart's noncognitivist approach to morality yields a defence of act utilitarianism in Utilitarianism: For and Against (), co-authored with Bernard Williams.
View Notes - Adam Smith and Utilitarianism from ECO F at University of Cape Town. ADAM SMITH AND UTILITARIANISM Adam Smith may be classed as . Abstract In this paper we confront attempts to bring Smith closer to utilitarianism.
We show that Smith's conception of utility is not utilitarian. While the pursuit of ‘pleasure’ could lie behind human behaviour, it is not the pleasure referred to by utilitarianism.
Instead, utility, in its colloquial sense, plays a greater role that suggests a type of consideration which is foreign to. J. L. Mackie - Ethics~ Inventing Right and Wrong (, ) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.
Request PDF on ResearchGate | Utilitarianism and the role of utility in Adam Smith | In this paper we confront attempts to bring Smith closer to utilitarianism. We show that Smith's conception of.